boeing 777

The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and has a typical seating capacity of 314 to 396 passengers, with a range of 5,240 to 8,555 nautical miles (9,704 to 15,844 km). Commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven", its distinguishing features include the largest-diameter turbofan engines of any aircraft, six wheels on each main landing gear, fully circular fuselage cross-section, and a blade-shaped tail cone. Developed in consultation with eight major airlines, the 777 was designed to replace older wide-body airliners and bridge the capacity difference between Boeing's 767 and 747. As Boeing's first fly-by-wire airliner, it has computer-mediated controls. It was also the first commercial aircraft to be designed entirely with computer-aided design.

The 777 is produced in two fuselage lengths as of 2017. The original 777-200 variant entered commercial service in 1995, followed by the extended-range 777-200ER in 1997. The stretched 777-300, which is 33.25 ft (10.1 m) longer, followed in 1998. The initial 777-200, extended-range -200ER, and -300 versions are equipped with General Electric GE90, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or Rolls-Royce Trent 800 engines. They have since been collectively referred to as 777 Classics. The extended-range 777-300ER and ultra long-range 777-200LR variants entered service in 2004 and 2006 respectively, while the 777F, a freighter version, debuted in February 2009; these second generation variants all feature high-output GE90 engines and extended raked wingtips. The 777-200LR is one of the world's longest-range airliners, able to fly more than halfway around the globe and holds the record for the longest distance flown non-stop by a commercial aircraft. In November 2013, Boeing announced the development of the third-generation of the 777, the 777X, initially comprising of the 777-8 and 777-9 "mini-jumbo jet" variants. The 777X features composite folding wings and GE9X engines plus further technologies developed for the 787, and scheduled to enter service by 2020.

The 777 first entered commercial service with United Airlines on June 7, 1995. The 777 has received more orders than any other wide-body airliner; as of October 2017, more than 60 customers had placed orders for 1,957 aircraft of all variants, with 1,520 delivered. The most common and successful variant is the 777-300ER with 758 delivered and 829 orders; Emirates operates the largest 777 fleet, with 161 passenger and freighter aircraft as of July 2017. The 777 has been involved in six hull losses as of October 2016; the Asiana Airlines Flight 214 accident in July 2013 was its first fatal crash in 18 years of service.

The 777 ranks as one of Boeing's best-selling models. Airlines have acquired the type as a comparatively fuel-efficient alternative to other wide-body jets and have increasingly deployed the aircraft on long-haul transoceanic routes. Direct market competitors include the Airbus A330-300, the Airbus A350 XWB, and the out-of-production A340 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11. The 787 Dreamliner, which entered service in 2011, shares design features and a common type rating for pilots with the 777.

Boeing customers that have received the most 777s are Emirates, Singapore Airlines, United Airlines, ILFC, and American Airlines. Emirates is the largest airline operator as of July 2017, and is the only customer to have operated all 777 variants produced, including the -200, -200ER, -200LR, -300, -300ER, and 777F. The 1,000th 777 off the production line, a -300ER set to be Emirates' 102nd 777, was unveiled at a factory ceremony in March 2012.

A total of 1,387 aircraft (all variants) were in airline service as of July 2017, with Emirates (161), United Airlines (88), Cathay Pacific (70), Air France (70), American Airlines (67), British Airways (58), Qatar Airways (55), Singapore Airlines (53), All Nippon Airways (52) and other operators with fewer aircraft of the type.[11]

In 2017, 777 Classics are towards the end of their mainline service: with a -200 age ranging from three to 22 years, 43 Classic 777s or 7.5% of the fleet have been retired. Values of 777-200ERs have declined by 45% since January 2014, faster than Airbus A330s and Boeing 767s with 30%, due to the lack of a major secondary market but only a few budget, air charters and ACMI operators. In 2015, Richard H. Anderson, then Delta Air Lines' chairman and chief executive, said he had been offered 777-200s for less than $10 million. To keep them cost efficient, operators densifies their 777s for about $10 million each, like Scoot with 402 seats in its dual-class -200s, or Cathay Pacific which switched the 3-3-3 economy layout of 777-300s to 3-4-3 to seat 396 on regional services.

As of February 2017, the 777 has been involved in nineteen aviation accidents and incidents, including a total of six hull-losses – at least one due to a criminal act – resulting in 541 fatalities; and three hijackings. The first fatality involving the twinjet occurred in a fire while an aircraft was being refueled at Denver International Airport in the United States on September 5, 2001, during which a ground worker sustained fatal burns. The aircraft, operated by British Airways, suffered fire damage to the lower wing panels and engine housing; it was later repaired and returned to service.

The type's first hull-loss occurred on January 17, 2008, when a 777-200ER with Rolls-Royce Trent 895 engines, flying from Beijing to London as British Airways Flight 38, crash-landed approximately 1,000 feet (300 m) short of Heathrow Airport's runway 27L and slid onto the runway's threshold. There were 47 injuries and no fatalities. The impact damaged the landing gear, wing roots and engines. The aircraft was written off. The accident was attributed to ice crystals suspended in the aircraft's fuel clogging the fuel-oil heat exchanger (FOHE). Two other minor momentary losses of thrust with Trent 895 engines occurred later in 2008. Investigators found these were also caused by ice in the fuel clogging the FOHE. As a result, the heat exchanger was redesigned.

On July 29, 2011, a 777-200ER scheduled to operate as EgyptAir Flight 667, suffered a cockpit fire while parked at the gate at Cairo International Airport before its departure. The aircraft was evacuated with no injuries, and airport fire teams extinguished the fire. The aircraft sustained structural-, heat- and smoke damage, and was written off. Investigators focused on a possible short circuit between an electrical cable and a supply hose in the cockpit crew oxygen system.

On July 6, 2013, a 777-200ER operating as Asiana Airlines Flight 214, crashed while landing at San Francisco International Airport after touching down short of the runway. The 307 surviving passengers and crew on board evacuated before fire destroyed the aircraft. Two passengers, who had not been wearing their seatbelts, were ejected from the aircraft during the crash and were killed. A third passenger died six days later as a result of injuries sustained during the crash. These were the first fatalities in a crash involving a 777 since its entry into service in 1995. The official accident investigation concluded in June 2014 that the pilots committed 20 to 30 minor to significant errors in their final approach, and that complexities of the automated controls contributed to the accident.

On March 8, 2014, a 777-200ER carrying 227 passengers and 12 crew, en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing as Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, was reported missing. Air Traffic Control's last reported coordinates for the aircraft were over the South China Sea at 6°55′15″N 103°34′43″E. After the search for the aircraft began, Malaysia's prime minister announced on March 24, 2014 that after analysis of new satellite data it was now to be assumed "beyond reasonable doubt" that the aircraft had crashed in the Indian Ocean and there were no survivors. As of August 2016, the cause remains unknown, but the Malaysian Government declared it was an accident in January 2015. On July 29, 2015, an item later identified as a flaperon from the missing aircraft was found on the island of RĂ©union in the western Indian Ocean.

The fifth hull loss occurred on July 17, 2014, when a 777-200ER, bound for Kuala Lumpur from Amsterdam as Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, broke up in mid-air and crashed in the Donetsk province in eastern Ukraine, after being hit by an anti-aircraft missile. All 298 people (283 passengers and 15 crew) on board were killed. The incident was linked to the ongoing Donbass insurgency in the region. The official accident report, released in October 2015, states that airliner was brought down by a Buk missile launched from territory held by pro-Russian separatists.

On September 8, 2015, a 777-200ER caught fire during its take-off at Las Vegas McCarran International Airport as British Airways Flight 2276, after one of its General Electric GE90-85B engines suffered a serious uncontained engine failure. The take-off was aborted and all crew and passengers were evacuated with only minor injuries occurring. Investigators discovered that debris from inside the engine had punctured 'multiple' holes in the engine case.

On May 27, 2016, an engine caught fire on a 777-300 before it was due to take off as Korean Air Flight 2708 at Tokyo International Airport, commonly known as Haneda Airport. Shortly before take-off, the Number 1 Pratt & Whitney PW4000 engine caught fire. All 17 crew members and 302 passengers evacuated safely. Fire fighters put out the fire within an hour. The incident is under investigation.

On June 27, 2016, a 777-300ER suffered an oil leak in the right engine while en route from Singapore to Milan as Singapore Airlines Flight 368. It was diverted back to Singapore Changi Airport for an emergency landing. The right engine and wing caught fire during the landing roll and sustained serious fire damage. There were no injuries.

On August 3, 2016, the sixth hull-loss of the type occurred, when a 777-300 crashed while landing and caught fire at Dubai Airport at the end of its flight as Emirates Flight 521. The preliminary investigation indicated that the aircraft was attempting a landing during active wind shear conditions. The pilots initiated a go-around procedure shortly after the main wheels touched-down onto the runway, however the aircraft settled back onto the ground apparently due to late throttle application. As the undercarriage was in the process of being retracted, the aircraft landed on its rear underbody and engine nacelles, resulting in the separation of one engine, loss of control and subsequent crash. There were no passenger casualties of the 300 people on board, however one airport fireman was killed fighting the fire. The aircraft's fuselage and right wing were badly damaged by the fire.